microvolt n : a unit of potential equal to one millionth of a volt
The volt (symbol: V) is the SI derived unit of electric potential difference or electromotive force. It is named in honor of the Lombard physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), who invented the voltaic pile, the first modern chemical battery.
DefinitionThe volt is defined as the potential difference across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. Hence, it is the base SI representation m2 · kg · s-3 · A-1, which can be equally represented as one joule of energy per coulomb of charge, J/C.
- \mbox = \dfrac = \dfrac = \dfrac = \dfrac = \dfrac
Josephson junction definitionSince 1990 the volt is maintained internationally for practical measurement using the Josephson effect, where a conventional value is used for the Josephson constant, fixed by the 18th General Conference on Weights and Measures as
- K = 0.4835979 GHz/µV.
Hydraulic analogyIn the hydraulic analogy sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them to water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to water pressure – it determines how fast the electrons will travel through the circuit. Current (in amperes), in the same analogy, is a measure of the volume of water that flows past a given point per unit time (volumetric flow rate). The flow rate is determined by the width of the pipe (analogous to electrical resistance) and the pressure difference between the front end of the pipe and the exit (potential difference or voltage). The analogy extends to power dissipation: the power given up by the water flow is equal to flow rate times pressure, just as the power dissipated in a resistor is equal to current times the voltage drop across the resistor (amperes x volts = watts).
The relationship between voltage and current (in ohmic devices) is defined by Ohm's Law.
Nominal voltages of familiar sources:
- Nerve cell action potential: around 75 mV
- Single-cell, rechargeable NiMH or NiCd battery: 1.2 V
- Mercury battery: 1.355 V
- Single-cell, non-rechargeable alkaline battery (e.g. AAA, AA, C and D cells): 1.5 V
- Lithium polymer rechargeable battery: 3.75 V
- Transistor-transistor logic/CMOS (TTL) power supply: 5 V
- PP3 battery: 9 V
- Automobile electrical system: "12 V", about 11.8 V discharged, 12.8 V charged, and 13.8-14.4 V while charging (vehicle running).
- Household mains electricity: 240 V RMS in Australia, 230 V RMS in Europe, Asia and Africa, 120 V RMS in North America, 100 V RMS in Japan (see List of countries with mains power plugs, voltages and frequencies)
- Rapid transit third rail: 600 to 750 V (see List of current systems for electric rail traction)
- High speed train overhead power lines: 25 kV RMS at 50 Hz, but see the list of current systems for electric rail traction for exceptions.
- High voltage electric power transmission lines: 110 kV RMS and up (1150 kV RMS was the record as of 2005)
- Lightning: Varies greatly, often around 100 MV.
Note: Where 'RMS' (root mean square) is stated above, the peak voltage is \sqrt times greater than the RMS voltage for a sinusoidal signal centered around zero voltage.
History of the voltIn 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta developed the so-called Voltaic pile, a forerunner of the battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. In the 1880s, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), approved the volt for electromotive force. At that time, the volt was defined as the potential difference across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power.
Prior to the development of the Josephson junction voltage standard, the volt was maintained in national laboratories using specially constructed batteries called standard cells. The United States used a design called the Weston cell from 1905 to 1972.
microvolt in Tosk Albanian: Volt
microvolt in Arabic: فولت
microvolt in Asturian: Voltiu
microvolt in Bengali: ভোল্ট
microvolt in Min Nan: Bó͘-lú-to͘h
microvolt in Bosnian: Volt
microvolt in Breton: Volt
microvolt in Bulgarian: Волт
microvolt in Catalan: Volt
microvolt in Czech: Volt
microvolt in Danish: Volt
microvolt in German: Volt
microvolt in Estonian: Volt
microvolt in Modern Greek (1453-): Βολτ
microvolt in Spanish: Voltio
microvolt in Esperanto: Volto
microvolt in Basque: Volt
microvolt in French: Volt
microvolt in Friulian: Volt
microvolt in Gan Chinese: 伏
microvolt in Galician: Volt
microvolt in Korean: 볼트
microvolt in Croatian: Volt
microvolt in Indonesian: Volt
microvolt in Icelandic: Volt
microvolt in Italian: Volt
microvolt in Hebrew: וולט
microvolt in Kurdish: Volt
microvolt in Latin: Voltium
microvolt in Latvian: Volts
microvolt in Lithuanian: Voltas
microvolt in Hungarian: Volt
microvolt in Macedonian: Волт
microvolt in Malay (macrolanguage): Volt
microvolt in Dutch: Volt (eenheid)
microvolt in Japanese: ボルト (単位)
microvolt in Norwegian: Volt
microvolt in Norwegian Nynorsk: Volt
microvolt in Polish: Wolt
microvolt in Portuguese: Volt
microvolt in Kölsch: Volt (Mohß)
microvolt in Romanian: Volt
microvolt in Russian: Вольт
microvolt in Scots: Volt
microvolt in Simple English: Volt
microvolt in Slovak: Volt
microvolt in Slovenian: Volt
microvolt in Serbian: Волт
microvolt in Serbo-Croatian: Volt
microvolt in Finnish: Voltti
microvolt in Swedish: Volt
microvolt in Tamil: வோல்ட்டு
microvolt in Thai: โวลต์
microvolt in Vietnamese: Vôn
microvolt in Turkish: Volt
microvolt in Ukrainian: Вольт
microvolt in Contenese: 伏
microvolt in Chinese: 伏特